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State Normal School
Monday, June 29 to Friday, August 7
FACULTY OF THE SUMMER SCHOOL
D. B. WALDO, A. M., L.L. D. President
First Grade, Training School.
English Language and Literature.
MARCELLA BOURNS, A. B.
Manual Training Department.
DORA I. BUCKINGHAM.
ERNEST BURNHAM, Ph. D.
Rural School Department.
NORMA W. CAMERON, Ph. D.
MINNIE M'CONNELL CAMPBELL
Second Grade, Training School.
C. H. CARRICK, A. B., Superintendent of Schools, Charlotte,
W. E. CONKLING, Superintendent of Schools, Hastings,
SUSIE M. ELLETT, A. B., County Normal Director, Allegan
Rural School Methods.
IVA J. FERREE,
Fourth Grade, Training School.
ELVA M. FORNCROOK, A. B.
Director of Kindergarten.
EMELIA M. GOLDSWORTHY
Public School Art.
CYNTHIA A. GREEN, Commissioner of Schools, Eaton County,
Rural School Management.
L. H. HARVEY, Ph. D.
T. PAUL HICKEY, A. B.
4 WESTEEN STATE NOKMAL SCHOOL
Public School Music.
HILDRED HANSON HOSTETTER
Public School Music.
FRED S. HUFF, Kalamazoo Public Schools,
V. R. HUNGERFORD, A. M., Commissioner of Schools, Van
Buren County, History.
C. D. JENNINGS, Public Schools, St. Joseph,
FRANK A. JENSEN, A. M., Superintendent of Schools, Hart,
GEORGE F. JTLLSON, A. B.
ADELE M. JONES, B. S.,
B. J. JONES, A. M.
English Language and Literature.
MATIE LEE JONES
Public School Art.
CATHERINE KOCH, B. S.,
Nature Study and Agriculture.
HARPER C. MAYBEE
Public School Music.
william Mccracken, Ph. d.,
L. A. McDIARMID, A. B. Superintendent of Schools, Marshall,
S. B. NORCROSS
F. E. ROBINSON, Commissioner of Schools, Branch County,
Rural School Department.
G. EDITH SEEKELL
Sixth Grade, Training School.
M. J. SHERWOOD
SUMMER BULLETIN 5
W. H. SPAULDTNG, A. B.,
Director of Athletics.
LA VINA SPINDLER
Director of Training School.
GEORGE SPRAU, A. M.,
English Language and Literature.
PAUL C. STETSON, A. B., Grand Rapids High School,
GEORGE S. WAITE
CAROLINE WAKEMAN, Ph. B.,
EVA WARRINER, County Normal Director, Calhoun County,
Reading and Grammar.
L. H. WOOD, A. M.,
E. N. WORTH, A. B., Kalamazoo High School,
ELISABETH ZIMMERMAN, A. B.,
ESTHER BRALEY, A, B.,
ANNA L. FRENCH
MARIE C. COLE
Clerk, Training School.
Summer Term of the Western
State Normal School
THE tenth annual summer term of the Western State
Normal School will open June 29 and continue six
weeks, closing August 7. Students will be enrolled
and classified on Monday, June 29, and classes in all depart-
ments will begin recitations on Tuesday, June 30. Nearly all
of the regular instructors of the Normal School will remain
in residence during the Summer Term, and will be assisted by
a number of outside teachers selected for their efficiency in
special lines of work.
The Western State Normal School is located at Kalamazoo,
the County Seat of Kalamazoo County, in the heart of South-
western Michigan. In beauty, in accessibility, in general edu-
cational advantages, this thriving city of forty thousand in-
habitants affords an ideal location for the school.
Kalamazoo is at the intersection of the great lines of travel
in Western Michigan. It is the half-way point between De-
troit and Chicago on the main line of the Michigan Central
Railway which is here crossed by the Grand Rapids & In-
diana, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, and the Chicago,
Kalamazoo & Saginaw railroads, all running north and south.
It is the eastern terminus of the South Haven branch of the
Michigan Central which gives excellent connections with
Chicago by boat. It is also the eastern terminus of the Kala-
mazoo, Lake Shore k Chicago Railroad. The Chicago and
Grand Trunk Railway now has direct connection with the main
line of that road by way of Pavilion. The electric lines of
the Michigan United Traction Company give trolley connec-
tions with the eastern part of the State via Battle Creek and
Jackson. On the various steam railways more than fifty
trains arrive and depart daily giving excellent connections
with the surrounding territory.
The advantages of Kalamazoo as a place of residence are
SUMMER BULLETIN 7
unquestioned. The city is beautiful in situation and is well
kept. The climate is healthful, the water supply excellent, and
the sanitary conditions are unusually good. Situated in the
center of a fine farming country, it is itself widely known
for its diversified industries.
PUBPOSE OF SCHOOL
The object of the school as constituted by law is to prepare
teachers for public school service. The work of the school is
organized and conducted essentially to this end. It is recog-
nized that scholarship, knowledge of child nature, and a proper
attitude toward the work of teaching are the three essential
factors in all professional preparation for teachers. The course
of study in the Western State .Normal School has been planned
with the purpose of providing for these end? by giving as thor-
ough knowledge of the subject-matter as possible in the time
devoted to the work, by emphasizing the principles underlying
the educational process, and by keeping before the mind of the
student the realization that the highest aim of education, is
character. All facilities possible will be offered for the
futherance of these purposes and for bringing the student into
contact with the best in modern thought and life. The spirit
of hearty co-operation between faculty and students in enter-
prises and interests of the school will be fostered at all times.
The responsibility for the proper attitude of students to-
ward the school and community is necessarily for the most
part thrown upon the students themselves. While it is the
purpose of the school to incite the student continually to high-
er and better ideals of character and public service, it is
impracticable for a Normal School to attempt the task of re-
forming young men and young women. No personal effort
will be spared in assisting students in every possible way,
but those who are manifestly lacking in the essentials of good
character, or in ability to become efficient instructors of chil-
dren, will be requested, whenever the evidence of their un-
fitness is complete, to withdraw from the school.
During the Summer Term special attention will be given to
those who are already teaching. Courses of study, plans of
work, methods of instruction, will be shaped to the needs of
teachers now engaged in the profession.
8 WESTEEN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL
The classes of the regular certificate courses will meet as
heretofore in the JNormal Building. This structure contains, in
addition to the administration onices, fourteen class-rooms, an
assembly room, and laboratory facilities for work in biologi-
cal and pnysical sciences. The site occupied by the building
is already well known for the panoramic view afforded of
Kalamazoo city and the Kalamazoo River valley.
Review classes will meet in the training building. The
training building is a splendid structure with two stories and
a basement, 118 feet long and 100 feet wide. This structure
is regarded as one of the best planned of its kind in the
entire country. In completeness and convenience the building
is a model.
The gymnasium is the largest of its kind to be found among
the normal schools and colleges of the Northwest Territory.
The main room is 119 feet long and 68 feet wide, the floor
being entirely clear of posts or obstructions of any kind. The
running track, 12 feet above the main floor, is suspended from
the structural steel supporting the roof. The track is 9i feet
in width, and has sloping sides and ends as well as raised cor-
ners. In the basement are shower baths for both men and
women, and a swimming pool 52 feet long. All classes in pub-
lic school gymnastics will meet in the gymnasium.
The erection of the new Science Building will be well under
way by the Summer Term. It is to be located directly west
of the Gymnasium, and will cover a ground area of 146 by 78
feet. The building will have three full stories housing the De-
partments of Psychology and Geography on the first floor,
Biology on the second, and Physics and Chemistry on the
third. The new quarters and much additional equipment to
be added should greatly increase the efficiency of the work in
The Library numbers over 11,000 volumes. It has been
possible to include good working material of recent date only,
as all the purchases have been made within nine years.
In the departments of Literature and History the standard
works are well represented, and large additions of reference
material are being made.
SUMMER BULLETIN 9
One hundred and forty-five periodicals are taken and a good
collection of complete sets is shelved in the Eeading Room;
students are given free access to them and to the stack room.
A representative selection of children's books is furnished
by the State Library. This collection is open for inspection
during certain hours of the day and gives an unusual oppor-
tunity for teachers to become acquainted with the best books
for children and what are the most suitable and attractive
The Kalamazoo Public Library with a collection of 45,000
volumes is generously open to all students of the Normal
The most notable additions in equipment have been in the
department of manual training. A great deal of useful and
expensive machinery has been purchased and is now installed
in the new Manual Training Building of the Kalamazoo Pub-
lic School System. This modern building with its equipment
will afford splendid opportunities for those desiring this kind
of work. The biology department has also added several new
and improved microscopes. In physics, chemistry, domestic art,
and domestic science there have also been additions that add
much to their efficiency.
Students having recitations at the Normal building will be
afforded free transportation on the two-track railway be-
longing to the Normal School. Two cars will be in operation
daily during the entire summer thus removing all objections
on the part of those who find hill climbing irksome.
TEES AND LIVING EXPENSES.
Students in all courses who are residents of Michigan will
pay a fee of $3 for the term. Students who reside in other
states or foreign countries will pay a fee of $5 for the term.
This small tuition fee admits to all classes. No charge is made
for the special lecture courses offered during the summer term.
All students pay an athletic fee of fifty cents.
Board in clubs costs about $3 per week, and rooms con-
veniently located and suitably furnished may be obtained at a
cost ranging in price from 75 cents to $1.00 per week for each
10 WESTEBN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL
student. The total expense for the summer term should not
exceed $35 to $40.
THE NORMAL CO-OPERATIVE STORE
The Normal co-operative store which has been in operation
during the past two years will be open during the summer
term, affording opportunity for students to purchase books
and other necessary supplies on the campus.
THE KALAMAZOO NORMAL RECORD
The Record serves as a clearing house for the educational
activities of the Normal. Timely articles on present ques-
tions are contributed by members of the faculty. The Train-
ing School, the departments of Art, Expression, Music, Physi-
cal Training, and the Kindergarten furnish many articles of
great practical value to teachers. This material is usable and
serviceable as it is the record of successful work in the Nor-
mal itself. The subscription price is fifty cents a year for ten
issues. The July number this year will report the celebration
of the decennial anniversary of the School, and will contain
Summer School items.
Credits applying on the certificate courses may be earned
in any of the subjects regularly required. Twenty-four weeks
(one-half of a full term's credit) is usually the maximum
credit for any student during the summer term. Classes re-
citing daily ordinarily earn six week's credit, while those
reciting twice each day earn twelve weeks' credit. Review
classes are not credited on the certificate courses except in
the Bural School department.
DEMAND FOR TEACHERS
There is an increasing demand for trained teachers through-
out the state and in the country at large. The tendency of sal-
aries is upward, and teaching is nearer a profession than
ever before. Graduates of the Western Normal are in great
demand, and much care is exercised in placing students of the
school where the likelihood of success and the opportunity
to serve are greatest.
The city of Kalamazoo affords many opportunities for re-
munerative employment for both young men and young women.
SUMMER BULLETIN 11
Students desiring work with a view to lessening the expense
of attending school are assisted in securing employment of
ATHLETICS AND SOCIAL FEATURES
Due attention will be given to various forms of athleticB
during the summer term. Baseball and tennis will be promi-
nent features of outdoor athletics. Five tennis courts will be
at the disposal of students, and attention will also be given to
other outdoor games and sports that may be used in public
THE ATHLETIC FIELD
The purchase of an athletic field during the past year has
been the most important addition to the equipment. The tract
of land to be devoted to this purpose is of 13 acres extent,
lies just across Oakland Drive from the Normal grounds, and ex-
tends a half mile or more along the Michigan Central Rail-
road. The land will be graded, sodded, seeded, and drained.
An approach will be built on Michigan Avenue, a diamond and
a gridiron laid out, baseball bleachers built, and the first sec-
tion of a grand stand erected. All these improvements, it is
planned, will be completed by th<e fall of 1914.
As in former years a social committee selected from the
faculty will provide special features of entertainment with a
view to securing a variety of interests and affording opportu-
nities for extending acquaintanceship among the students.
Social gatherings similar to those of last summer, which
will be so pleasantly remembered by all students who were in
attendance, will be included in the general program which has
been planned for the enjoyment of members of the summer
GENERAL STUDENT PARTIES
Thursday, July 2.
Wednesday, July 15.
Wednesday, July 29.
The work offered in the summer term is as follows:
1. Regular Certificate Courses.
2. Review Courses.
3. Extension Course.
12 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL
REGULAR CERTIFICATE COURSES
A large number of classes will be formed in the branches
included in the regular certificate courses. Several of these
classes in the Life, Graded and Rural Certificate groups
will meet twice daily, thus enabling a student to cover the
work of two twelve-week courses during the summer term.
Classes will be formed in a wide variety of subjects in the
departments of Psychology and Education, English Language
and Literature, Expression, Geography, Science, Mathematics,
History and Civics, German, Latin, Drawing, Music, Man-
ual Training, Domestic Economy, Kindergarten Theory, Lib-
rary Methods, and Physical Training.
Review classes will be formed in all of the common school
branches. These classes will be of special benefit to students
and teachers who are preparing for the county examinations
to be held in August. Opportunity will be offered for re-
viewing subjects included in the first, second, and third-grade
examinations. As there will be no summer schools or institutes
this year in the counties near Kalamazoo all teachers are
urged to take advantage of the unusual privileges offered at
the Western State Normal. Credits earned during the six
weeks' term are recorded, and in some subjects apply on
certificate courses. There will be thorough reviews, and in
addition courses will be so arranged in many subjects that
students attending two or more summer terms may pursue work
in a given study without duplicating subject-matter.
The subjects in which review courses will be offered are
Physiology, United States History, Civil Government, Gram-
mar, Arithmetic, Geography, Reading, Orthography, Theory
and Art of Teaching, School Law, Course of Study, Algebra,
Botany, General History, Physics, and Geometry.
DEPARTMENT OF RURAL SCHOOLS
A special department gives careful attention to the prepara-
tion of teachers for country schools. The number of school
districts which pay a salary sufficient to command the ser-
SUMMER BULLETIN 13
vices of specially prepared teachers, is rapidly increasing.
The courses offered here to fit teachers to meet successfully
the progressive demands of the districts, are the result of ex-
perience accumulated in working at this problem through the
ten years since the establishment of this institution.
Two groups of students are seeking special preparation for
teaching rural schools. High school graduates who desire to
teach in rural schools are offered Course I, which may be
completed in one year and one summer term. This course
leads to a certificate which is good for three years in any
public school in Michigan, up to the tenth grade. Graduates
of this course may complete the Life Certificate Course in one
Another group of students who desire preparation for rural
school teaching is made up of young people who have not
completed a high school course. Course II is offered this
group. Students who have completed ten grades of public
school work may complete Rural Course II in two years; and
students who have had eleven grades of public school work
may complete this course in one year. Students who have not
had ten grades of school work may advance by enrolling in
the High School Department until they are prepared to enter
Rural Course II. The completion of Course II requires the
same total weeks credit as is required for graduation from a
high school of twelve grades. A teacher's certificate good in
any one, two, or three-room school in Michigan for live years
and renewable for three years, is given at the completion of
this course. Graduates of this course may complete Rural
Course I in one year and one summer term, and the Life Cer-
tificate Course in two years.
Renewals of certificates in the rural school courses are
granted upon application made in due form, for which blanks
may be obtained from the secretary of the Normal; they should
be accompanied by recommendations of renewal by the County
Commissioner of Schools and the school directors who are
familiar with the work of the applicant in the school room.
Loyal participation in all activities suggested or organized
by the County Commissioner for the welfare of schools and
14 WESTEKN STATE NOEMAL SCHOOL
the growth of teachers in service ought certainly to precede
any request made upon the Commissioner for a recommenda-
tion. Likewise faithful service and success in the school room
should precede the request for a testimonial from the school
Graduates of County Normal Training Classes who have fin-
ished the tenth grade or its equivalent before entering the
Training Classes may finish Course II in one year and Course I
may be finished by them in two years and one summer term.
Graduates of County Training Classes who have completed
eleven grades before entering the Training Classes may com-
plete Course 1 in one year and one summer term. Graduates of
County Training Classes who have completed twelve grades
before entering the Training Classes may complete Course I
in one regular term and one summer term. Graduates of the
County Training Classes, who attend State Normal for twelve
weeks to answer the requirements for the second renewal of
their certificates, should advise with the director of this de-
partment about their classification. Students in any course
who look forward to teaching in County Normal Training
Classes, should elect courses in this department.
The subjects of study offered in this department, may be
briefly summarized in three groups: first, such as give a know-
ledge of children and of their organization, management, and in-
struction; second, such subjects as give power for localizing
the curriculum in natural, industrial, and domestic illustra-
tions and applications; and third, a group of subjects intend-
ed to develop social intelligence and inspire purposes of par-
ticipation and leadership in rural community life. Details are
given in descriptions of subjects in subsequent pages.
Summer school students and others interested in rural
school teaching are asked to interview or to write to the
Director of the Department of Rural Schools.
In 1905 the State Board authorized the granting of an ex-
tension life certificate to mature students who (1) are high
school graduates, (2) have taught six years, and (3) under the
direction of the Western State Normal School faculty have
completed work as follows: (a) three summer terms in resi-
dence, (h) two years of non-resident work. This non-resident
work is either (1) class work at some center within range of
SUMMER BULLETIN 15
the school where an instructor can meet the students once a
week usually on Saturdays, or (2) carefully organized courses
taken by correspondence.
The Western State Normal School from its foundation, has
permitted properly qualified students to avail themselves of this
opportunity. During the past seven years 87 students have
completed this course.
The object of this arrangement has been to meet the needs
of those who are otherwise deprived of opportunities for
growth and advancement. The fear that students by taking
this course would be led aside from undertaking resident study,
has not proved real; in fact, one of the important results has
been an increase in the number of students who, after under-
taking the extension course, have come to see that it was
more possible than they had thought to enter upon and com-
plete the life certificate course in residence.
A higher grade of work is necessary to satisfy extension
course requirements than is that of average residence courses.
It is the student whose experience has trained him to effective
methods of organization who can profit most by studying un-
der the direction of an absent instructor.
A special announcement of this department will be furn-
ished on application to the Secretary.
WPTJ^pqnAV ^ r * Charles H> Judd of the University of
' Chicago will lecture on " Individual Dif-
ferences Among Pupils.'' Dr. Judd is most
pleasantly remembered by former students who were
at the Western State Normal during the summer
sessions of 1909, 1910, 1912, and 1913. He is one of the
ablest students of education in the United States, and in clear,
forceful, and inspiring discussion of educational problems holds
ttipsdav ^ r ' ^ av ^ Snedden, Commissioner of Education of
__.„._- _ the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, will lecture
on ' ' More Efficient Education of Children Between
the Ages of Twelve and Sixteen. ' j Dr. Snedden is widely known
as one of the ablest educators of the day. He is an attractive and
16 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL
forceful speaker and will be greatly enjoyed by all who hear
MONDAY Mls * Cora Wilson Stewart of Rowan County, Ky.,
JULY 13 ' WiU lecture on l ' The Moonlight Schools of Ken-
tucky,^ Mrs. Stewart has won national fame
during the past three years by her campaign against illiteracy in
Kentucky. In Rowan county, where sne lives, the number
of illiterates has been reduced in three years from 1,800 to 22.
Twenty -live counties in Kentucky ha^e taken up the work
which Mrs. Stewart and her associates have accomplished so
THURSDAY I>T ' W * C * Ba S le 7 of the University of Illinois,
will speak on "The Red Letter Lesson.' ' Dr.
Bagley is well known through his educational
writings, particularly through his recent books, "Crafts-
manship in Teaching, '* and "Educational Values."
He is at the head of the department of Educa-
tion in the University if Illinois, and is one of the
foremost of the educational leaders of America. Dr. Bagley is
a most effective speaker and will be cordially received by those
who heard him during the summer term of 1912.
REDPATH CHAUTAUQUA, The Ked P atn Chautauqua will
JULY 25 TO 31. b ° in SeSSi ° n ° n the N ° rmal
campus seven days, begin-
ning Saturday, July 25. Programs will be given morning,
afternoon, and evening, as neretofore. Students will be in-
terested especially in the afternoon and evening programs.
Prominent lecturers and musical organizations will appear.
A special admission rate of one dollar will be offered to stu-
dents of the Normal School. This will admit to the entire
program for the week.
TUESDAY ^ general music program will be given in the
. gymnasium under the direction of the instruct-
ors in the Music Department of the school.
Students of the summer school and instructors will furnish
most of the numbers.
SUMMER BULLETIN 17
DETAILS OF DEPARTMENT
Courses bearing numbers from 1 to 99 are offered in the
Review and High School Courses; those from 101 to 199 re-
ceive credit in the Rural, Graded School, and Life Certificate
Courses in the High School and Rural School Departments
which are the same as the courses in the Graded School and
Life Certificate work, are given the numbers of the latter.
GRADED AND LIFE CERTIFICATE COURSES
101. Drawing from Nature. This course aims to enlarge
the appreciation and knowledge of the world of nature by ex-
pressing various phases of the landscape, also by the study and
expression of flowers, grasses, fruits, and other nature sub-
jects, including figure and animal studies in various mediums,
pencil, crayon, and water-color. The nature motifs studied
form the basis for problems in design which are applied to
practical school problems. 12 weeks' credit.
MISS SPENCER AND ASSISTANT.
102. Perspective and Blackboard Work. This course aims
to enlarge the appreciation and understanding of the com-
mon forms around us, and to develop knowledge and skill in
rendering the appearance of forms included under the study
of cylindrical and rectangular perspective. 12 weeks' credit.
103. Construction. This course takes up the subject of
hand work in the grades, and includes the working out of sim-
ple problems in weaving, basketry, clay modeling, stenciling,
and bookbind r_g. This course may be taken without previous
courses in An. 12 weeks' credit.
104. Design. This course includes the study of the princi-
ples of pure design as expressed in line, dark and light,
and color. Some problems showing application of design in
block printing, stenciling, pottery, leather and metal work are
included in this course. 12 weeks' credit.
18 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL
Teaching Art in the Training School by Miss Judson, nine
to eleven daily.
REVIEW, RURAL II, AND HIGH SCHOOL COURSES
10. Physiology. An elementary review course for teachers
preparing tor the fall examinations. While the functions of
the various systems of the body will be especially emphasized,
yet enough anatomy will be given to furnish an understanding
of the various organs. Peabody's Physiology will form the
basis of the course. Bring ail available text-books.
11. Botany. A review course designed to prepare teachers
for the county examination. Bergen 's Elements of Botany
will form the basis of this course. Bring all text-books
available. DR. HARVEY.
12. Agriculture. Text-book, field trips, garden and labo-
ratory. Based on best available text-books for elementary
and high school courses. Students should bring whatever ag-
ricultural text-books they have. Several sections will be form-
ed to accommodate those who are beginning as well as those
who have made some progress in the subject. 6 weeks' credit
in Rural School courses. MISS KOCH.
RURAL I., GRADED SCHOOL AND LIFE CERTIFICATE
III. Nature Study. The place of Nature Study in the
curricula of the elementary and rural school is definitely
assured. Most teachers feel a lack of preparation not only
in regard to subject-matter, but in methods of presentation.
The purpose of this course is to present the ideals and
methods of nature study, to acquaint the student with avail-
able materials and give him a grasp of the literature of the
subject. School gardens receive attention. Seasonal phen-
omena of plant and animal life are treated. Field and labora-
tory work are devoted to identification and ecology of our
common plant and animal forms — especial stress being placed
upon tree, bird, flower, and insect study. Kalamazoo offers
in its diverse habitats many localities of unusual interest,
making an ideal center for Nature Study work. Students
An Exhibit in Handcraft
SUMMER BULLETIN 19
should bring clothing suitable for tramping, collecting cases,
hand lenses, etc. Four afternoons of each week will be de-
voted to the work. 12 weeks' credit. DR. HARVEY.
REVIEW AND LIFE CERTIFICATE COURSES
1, 2. General Inorganic Chemistry. This course will be
devoted to a study of either the metals or the non-metals ac-
cording to the needs of those taking the course. Laooratory
work is required. Twice daily, 12 weeks' credit.
4. Review Chemistry. This course will include a rapid
review of the whole field of inorganic chemistry. Especial
stress will be laid upon the mathematical, theoretical, and com-
mercial aspects of the subject. Once daily. No credit.
5. Qualitative Analysis, corresponding to Course 105 of
the regular school year. Lectures twice a week. Laboratory
work arranged to suit the needs of those taking the course.
Either 6 or 12 weeks' credit. DR. McCRACKEN.
6. Chemistry for the Grades. This is a nature study
course corresponding to Course 109 of the regular school year.
A study will be made of some of the common elements, oxy-
gen, hydrogen, nitrogen, chlorine, carbon, sulphur, and of
some of the more common and important compounds used
by man. There will be used for illustration a series of simple
experiments capable of being used in the grades. Twice daily.
12 weeks' credit. DR. McCRACKEN.
REVIEW AND LIFE CERTIFICATE COURSES.
1. Review Physics. A comprehensive review of the entire
field of elementary physics. This course is designed for those
who wish to take the first or second grade county examination
or for those desiring to take the state examination for a life
certificate. It is also designed as a review for those desiring to
teach the subject in the high school and for those whose
course in the high school was incomplete. Twice daily.
20 WESTEEN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL
2. Physics for the Grades. A study of the physical pheno-
mena of common occurrence. This course should help grade
teachers in explaining many questions that arise in their work
such as those relating to the physical properties of matter;
some of the simple machines; heat and its relation to climate;
the interchange of heat and work; sound and its relation to
music; light — its characteristics, such as reflection, refraction,
chemical action in photography, etc., and magnetism and elec-
tricity. Under the last topic a study will be made of the
telephone, the telegraph, the electric light, the dynamo and the
motor. Class meets twice daily. 12 weeks' credit.
103a. Plain Sewing. A combination of machine and hand
work in the making of a four-piece suit of underwear. Discus-
sions on pattern making, materials, and various methods of
finishing and trimming. 6 weeks' credit. MISS JONES.
103b. Dressmaking. This course aims to give the student
a practical knowledge of drafting, designing, making, fitting,
and finishing tailored shirt waist suits and simple summer
dresses. Each student will make a shirt waist and tailored
skirt of a suitable cotton or linen material, and a simple muslin
dress. 6 weeks credit.
110. Art Needlework. The object of this course is to
acquaint the student with various kinds of embroidery and
artistic needlework. The work will include applique, hem-
stitching, simple drawn work, feather stitching, Bermuda fag-
oting, fancy darning, scalloped edges, dots, eyelets, and French
embroidery, applied to household linens, pillows, table run-
ners, and articles of clothing. 6 weeks' credit.
107. Cooking. This course offers practical work in the
cooking of all classes of foods, such as cereals, vegetables,
mefttf, Bggt, bread, pastry, salads, and desserts.
The work is planned to meet the needs of those outside
of the Domestic Science department who desire practical work
in cooking. Six weeks' credit will be given, but will not
apply on the two-year course in Domestic Science.
SUMMER BULLETIN 21
108. Cooking. This course will be given if a sufficient
number enroll. The work includes the planning, cooking, and
serving of meals at various costs. It is desired that those
entering this class should have had some work in cooking. A
credit of 6 weeks will be given, but it will not apply on me
two-year course in Domestic Science. MISS HUTTY.
RURAL, GRADED SCHOOL AND LIFE CERTIFICATE
1. School Management and Law. It will be the aim of
this course to make, as thorough a study as time will permit,
of the State Course of Study for Rural Schools, the General
School Laws, and School Management. Students who own
books on school management and related subjects should bring
them. This course is intended to aid all who are preparing
for the August county teachers ' examinations, in three regu-
lar examination topics: Theory and Art, Course of Study, and
School Law. 6 weeks' credit. MR. ROBINSON.
101. Elementary Psychology. The greater part of the
time of this course will be given to gaining facility in dealing
with the problems of elementary psychology and in the use of
the necessary vocabulary and materials. It is intended also to
lay the foundation for the student's later work in education
and especially to assist him to a better understanding and con-
trol of his own methods of study. Required in Graded School
and all Life Certificate Courses. 12 weeks' credit.
102. Child Study. By means of definite assignments for
observation and the careful study of children, the student will
have opportunity to gain further acquaintance with the inter-
ests and activities of the various stages of child life and
youth. This will be supplemented by the reading of some of
the more significant studies that have been made by acquain-
tance with the more important conclusions and problems that
have been formulated and by observations in the Training
School. Required in Graded School and General Life Certifi-
cate Courses. Prerequisite, Course 101. 6 weeks' credit.
106. History of Modern Education. The development of
the school in its relation to other social organizations. Espe-
22 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL
cial attention will be given to the historical conditions and
the men most significant in the understanding of present-day
problems. Required in all Life Certificate Courses. Pre-
requisite, 102, 103, 104, or 105. 12 weeks 7 credit.
107. Advanced Psychology. The aim of this course is a
careful study of such problems in psychology and education
as the learning process, the reasoning process, habituation and
inhibition in the light of the student's previous experience and
training and with the aid of as much experimentation as is
practicable in the class and in small groups of the class. It
will be aimed so to formulate the results of this study as to
make it serviceable in teaching and as a basis for independent
study and research. Preresquisite 101. 12 weeks' credit.
108. School Organization and Administration. This course
is intended primarily for those students who are or intend to
be superintendents or principals of schools. It will be of
value, however, to other teachers who wish to understand bet-
ter the conditions of efficiency in school relationships. A
study will be made of some of the books and periodical litera-
ture of the subject in an effort to determine influences which
are manifesting themselves in school supervision, curricula,
organizations, etc. Elective. 12 weeks' credit.
109. School Hygiene. The necessity of conserving the
health of the child is being more and more emphasized.
Hence the problems of mental and physical hygiene of the
child as well as those of the various institutions as they re-
late to the child call for our earnest consideration. Among
the topics taken up in this course will be the periods of
development; the different methods determining the age of the
child; school diseases and medical inspection; measurements
and tests; time tables; homo study; examinations; fatigue;
posture; school grounds, buildings and decoration, and other
agencies connected with the child's efficient development.
Reports of actual conditions found and of possible methods
of improvement will be requested. 6 weeks' credit.
110. The Philosophy of Education. In this course it will
be the endeavor to gain some idea of the principles of educa-
SUMMER BULLETIN 23
tion in accordance with the relevant laws of biology, psycho-
logy, sociology, and philosophy. Assignments will be made
to the writings of Rosenkranz, Tate, Cole, Dewey, MacVan-
nel, and others who have attempted to state the nature of
education in the light of its broader and deeper aspects.
Elective. 6 weeks' credit.
116. Rural Education. A study of the organization, ad-
ministration and curricula of rural schools. The possibilities
of industrial subjects in rural schools will be considered.
Lectures, class discussions, and special reports will be supple-
mented by open conferences once each week in which visiting
lecturers and others will participate. Elective. 12 weeks'
credit. DR. BURNHAM.
REVIEW, RURAL II., AND HIGH SCHOOL COURSES
7. Preparatory Grammar. The purpose of this course is
a thorough review for those who are making preparation for
the county examinations. It is not accepted as credit for the
course in Grammar. MISS BAUGHMAN.
99. Preparatory Composition. The elements of composition
are treated under both form and content. The course deals
with punctuation, word usage, paragraph and sentence struc-
ture, and business and social forms in letter writing. Daily
practice is afforded in both oral and written composition. 12
weeks' credit. MISS BAUGHMAN.
RURAL I., GRADED SCHOOL AND LIFE CERTIFICATE
101. Composition. The aim of this course is to stimulate
thinking and to arrange the result of one's thinking with a
view to clear and effective expression in the English language*
Some attention is given to conventional mechanics of writ-
ing, such as spelling, punctuation, and paragraphing; but
special emphasis is laid on thinking and organizing thought.
With this end in view, some stimulating book will be read
and much time will be devoted to oral and written pre-
sentation of interesting lines of thought suggested. 12 weeks'
credit. MR. JONES.
102. English Literature. The aim of this course is to help
the student read good literature with understanding and ap-
24 WESTEEN STATE NOEMAL SCHOOL
preciation. The class work will be confined to the study
of the chief English poets of the nineteenth century. As
much as possible of the more significant poems will be read
and interpreted in class. 12 week's credit.
103. Literary Material for the Grades. (Course 102 pre-
requisite.) The purpose of this course is to introduce the stu-
dent teacher to material which is adapted to his work in the
training schood or for later independent class-room experience.
One hour is devoted daily to discussion and criticism (1) of
chapters in MacClintock's (t Literature in the Elementary
School ;" (2) of literary material mentioned in MacClintock
considered from the points of view of its fitness for chil-
dren in school and of its value as real literature. The second
hour is given up to lectures on the principles of literary
criticism; these lectures are supplemented by suggestions for
guidance in reading and for the making of bibliographies.
12 weeks' credit. ME. JONES.
104. Advanced Grammar. This course will include a brief
consideration of the history of the teaching of grammar and a
series of brief studies such as: (1) To what extent does the
finite verb agree with the subject? (2) The so-called "Short-
Circuit, M or Short Word Group, in English syntax. (3) Ad-
vantages and disadvantages arising from the use of the dia-
gram. (4) The English word-order. (5) A consideration of
certain fallacious or misleading teachings in modern school-
grammars. (6) Grammar in the Elementary School. 12 weeks'
114. Shakespeare. In this course our purpose is to read
Shakespeare. Several plays are read carefully in class; others
are assigned for outside reading and study. 12 weeks' credit.
1. Reading and Orthography. A careful study will be
made of "Enoch Anion." This book forms the basis for the
county teachers 1 examinations in Reading in August. In Or-
thography a thorough study of Pattongill's Orthography will
SUMMER BULLETIN 25
RURAL I., GRADED SCHOOL AND LIFE CERTIFICATE
101. Reading. A study of the elements of expression and
the application of these principles in reading of classic selec-
tions. The course aims to develop expressive reading and
effective teaching of reading. It puts special emphasis on
fundamental principles and therefore should precede other
courses. 12 weeks' credit. MISS FORNCROOK.
103. Story Telling. A study of the purposes of story tell-
ing in school and of selection of stories. Daily practice in
telling stories. Should be preceded by English 103. 12
weeks' credit. MISS FORNCROOK.
105. Drama and Festival. Study and interpretation of
standard and modern plays or scenes from them. Aims to
develop dramatic imagination and sympathy, to cultivate
ability to read drama interpretively and to give prospective
teachers training in the staging of plays. Some time will also
be given to the preparation and presentation of festivals.
12 weeks' credit. MISS FORNCROOK.
Courses 103, or 105 offered, according to wishes of students.
5. Review Geography. This review course is planned to
prepare for the examinations in August and October.
RURAL L, GRADED SCHOOL AND LIFE CERTIFICATE
101a. Land Forms. A study (1) of the common rocks and
minerals — materials out of which the land forms are made and
the basis of mineral industry; (2) land forms in relation to
their origin, studied with contour maps and blackboard draw-
ing; and (3) a study of the physiographic regions of the con-
tinents. Several field trips supplement the work of the class-
room. 6 weeks' credit. This course is equivalent to one-half
of Course 101. Given during the year.
26 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL
102a. Climatology. A study (1) of the earth in relation to
the Solar System; (2) of the chief facts of Mathematical
Geography; (3) of the atmosphere in general and the part it
plays in the heating, lighting, and watering of the earth; and
(4) the study of the leading climatic features of the climatic
regions, and a brief notice of their characteristic plants,
animals and people of these regions. 6 weeks' credit. This
course is equivalent to one-half of Course 102.
Note — Courses 101a and 102a are fundamental to all work in
103a. North America. A study of the leading geographical
relations and the industries of Canada, the United States and
Mexico. 6 weeks' credit. MR. WOOD.
104a. Eurasia. A study (1) of Italy and the leading char-
acteristics of the Mediterranean Region; (2) of Great Britain
and Northwest Europe; (3) of Germany and Central Europe;
(4) of Russia and Eastern Europe; (5) of China and Japan.
6 weeks' credit. MR. WOOD.
106a. Commercial Geography. A study of the leading facts
of the industry and commerce of the chief producing regions
of the world. 6 weeks' credit.
108a. The Geography of Michigan. A study of the natural
features, form, relief, minerals, lakes, forests, rivers, and the
industries, together with a brief presentation of the leading
characteristics of the chief sections of the state, the Copper
Country, Iron Regions, Traverse Bay Country, Saginaw Valley,
Grand River Valley, the "Palm of the Hand," the "Thumb,"
etc. 6 weeks' credit. MR. WOOD.
GRADED SCHOOL AND LIFE CERTIFICATE COURSES.
101. Elementary Course. Twice daily. The aim of this
eourM Ki to give the student a knowledge of the rudiments of
German grammar and facility in reading and reproducing
easy German. A number of texts will be read and discussed
in German. 12 weeks' credit. MISS ZIMMERMAN.
SUMMER BULLETIN 27
114. Advanced Course. The study of some drama or prose
narrative, to be selected to meet the needs of the class. A
review of German grammar and syntax and practice in speak-
ing and writing the language. 6 weeks' credit.
115. Teachers ■ Course. This will be primarily a course in
German conversation, especially designed for those who feel
that their knowledge of the spoken language is inadequate for
present-day demands in modern language instruction. The work
will consist of the discussion of German texts in German and the
writing of compositions and reproductions. 6 to 12 weeks'
credit. MISS ZIMMERMAN.
Review, RURAL II., AND HIGH SCHOOL COURSES.
12. General History. A review course for students expect-
ing to take the examination for second grade certificate. The
class will meet twice daily. 12 weeks' credit in High School
Course. \ MISS WAKEMAN.
13. United States History. A review course to meet the
needs of students preparing for the August and October ex-
aminations. Four sections will be formed and a credit of 6
weeks in Rural School course may be earned.
14. Civil Government. This course is planned primarily
for students who wish to prepare for the August and October
examinations. Four sections will be formed. Bring any text-
books available. MR. CONKLING.
RURAL I., GRADED SCHOOL AND LIFE CERTIFICATE
101-2. United States History. Emphasis will be laid upon
the different periods according to the needs of the class. Spe-
cial attention will be given to choice of subject-matter and
bibliography suitable for grade work. 12 weeks' credit.
104. Roman History. The Romans as missionaries of Greek
culture; Roman institutions; their influence on the political
organization of Modern Europe. 12 weeks' credit.
28 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL
106. Europe, 1815 to Date. Particular emphasis will be
placed on the explanation of present conditions in Europe.
12 weeks' credit. MR. HICKEY.
113. Rural Sociology. A study of social relations and the
agencies for social progress in village and country. The place
of the school in community welfare is the large question con-
sidered. Attendance at the weekly conferences in Rural Edu-
cation 116 will be one of the requirements of this course.
Rural Course I. and elective. 6 or 12 weeks' credit.
The Kindergarten will be open the first four weeks for ob-
servation, and a limited number of students will be admitted
to practice. No credit. 9-11 a. m. MISS GAGE.
Conference hour for teachers in elementary grades. Discus-
sion based upon the practical work of the morning with the
children. Such problems as the morning exercises, rhythms
and games, hand work will furnish the basis of discussion.
No credit. 11-12 a. m. MISS GAGE.
REVIEW, RURAL II., AND HIGH SCHOOL COURSES
1. For Beginners. Reciting twice daily. It is planned to
cover the work of one term or more, if possible. 12 weeks'
credit. This is not designed as a review course.
2. Caesar and Composition, based on Caesar. This course is
designed for those who wish especially to review Latin prose
and feel the need of drill in writing Latin. More attention
will be paid to composition than to translation. 6 weeks'
credit or 12 weeks' credit. MISS BOURNS.
7, 10. Cicero or Virgil or Both. Opportunity will be given
to do 6 or 12 weeks' work, according to the ability of the
student and the judgment of the instructor. Those desiring
to continue one or both of these authors "in absentia" may
make such arrangements with Miss Parsons.
LIFE CERTIFICATE COURSES.
101. Same an Latin 1.
104. Same as Latin 2.
107, 110. Sana- M Latin 7 and 10.
SUMMEB BULLETIN 29
LIBRARY METHODS FOR TEACHERS
The course in Library Methods for Teachers arranged by
the State Board of Library Commissioners will extend through
the six weeks of the Summer School. Instruction will be
given daily in the form of lectures and practical problems in
connection with the Commission's special library.
101. Library Methods. General work, — daily discussion of
children's books taken from the selected library, use of lists
and bibliographies, and one week each of lectures on Children's
Beading and on Keference Books, given by specialists in these
branches, sent by the Library Commission. The purpose of the
work is to acquaint teachers with the best and most helpful
material and method for work supplementary to the regular
curriculum. 6 weeks' credit.
102. Library Methods. Elementary methods of library ad-
ministration, accession, classification, cataloguing, etc. — given
with the purpose of making it possible for the teacher in charge
of the school library to care for it and use it in the most
efficient way, rather than for the purpose of training profes-
sional librarians. 6 weeks' credit.
The Manual Training classes in Shop Work will be given in
the New Kalamazoo Manual Training School. The shops of
the new building have been splendidly equipped with machin-
ery for wood-turning, pattern-making, and blacksmithing.
Graduates and others prepared to take advanced work are re-
quested to notify Mr. George S. Waite, director of Manual
Training, before the opening of the term, as it is planned to
limit the attendance to the number that can be properly
handled. During the summer term classes in Manual Training
will visit several of the shops and industries of Kalamazoo
101. Manual Training. Instruction in wood and other mate-
rials suitable for the pupils in the fifth and sixth grades. 12
weeks' credit. MR. WAITE.
102. Manual Training. Instruction in woodworking shops
suitable for beginners in bench work. Work in various kinds
30 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL
of wood, the use of woodworking tools of all kinds, and the
finishing of the objects made. 12 weeks' credit.
103. Manual Training. More advanced work in cabinet
making and joinery. The making and finishing of practical
furniture, and elementary wood turning. 12 weeks' credit.
104-5. Manual Training. Elementary wood-turning. Pattern
making, molding and casting of patterns made. 12 weeks'
credit MR. SHERWOOD.
106. Manual Training. Forging exercise in drawing, upset-
ting, twisting, welding, tempering of iron and steel; orna-
mental work in iron; chipping, filing, and fitting. 12 weeks'
credit. MR. BOWEN.
109. Mechanical Drawing. Consists of simple elementary
and geometrical problems, the use of instruments, plans, and
elevations of simple objects, and simple lettering. 12 weeks'
credit. MR. HUFF.
110. Mechanical Drawing. Continuation of geometrical
problems, more advanced drawings of objects, drawings of shop
exercises, and lettering. 12 weeks' credit. MR. HUFF.
111. Mechanical Drawing. Orthographic projections devel-
opment of surfaces and sheet metal patterns, machine drawings.
12 weeks' credit. MR. BOWEN.
112. Mechanical Drawing. Isometric drawing, mechanical
shading, and drawings, designs for equipment of woodworking
rooms, tracings and blue prints. 12 weeks' credit.
113. Mechanical Drawing. Mechanical shading of drawings
including tinting of colors, plans of schoolrooms showing equip-
ments, designs for shop exercises, machine drawings. Plans,
elevations, details, specifications, tracings, and blue prints of
a manual training building. 12 weeks' credit.
111. Foundry Practice. This course will include molding
of patterns and casting of same. Use of cupola and crucibles.
<)\iu<\ry room will be equipped with facilities for this work.
This course requires previous experience in pattern making.
Students desiring to take this work must enroll before the
SUMMER BULLETIN 31
115. Machine Shop Practice. Iron working machinery, in-
cluding lathes, shapers, planers, grinders, drill press and the
use of same. Constructing machinery, repairing machinery, and
making of tools. Those desiring work in this class must notify
the instructor before the Normal School opens, as the number
taken will be limited. This work will require some previous
knowledge of machinery. MR. BOWEN.
REVIEW, RURAL II., AND HIGH SCHOOL COURSES.
1. Rural School Arithmetic. This course reviews the entire
field of grade arithmetic, giving especial attention to the needs
of the rural schools. Much attention will be given to problems
bearing on farm and home life. In connection with the course,
instruction will be given in grading pupils in arithmetic, and
that part of the State Manual bearing on this subject will
be reviewed. 12 weeks' credit. MR. JTLLSON.
7. Plane Geometry. Designed for those preparing for teach-
ers ' examination and those desiring a review of the subject
as a preparatory subject. Much attention is given to the
methods of attack. MR. JILLSON.
13. Arithmetic. A review for those desiring to prepare for
teachers' examination. Sections will be organized for all
grades of County Certificates. MR. JENNINGS.
14. Algebra. Review course for those preparing for teach-
ers' examination or for students who wish to review the sub-
ject as a preparatory course. MISS GREEN.
RURAL I., GRADED SCHOOL AND LITE CERTIFICATE
101. Arithmetic. A teacher's course. To elect this course
the student should have a knowledge of geometry and of the
beginners' course in psychology. The work consists of two
parts, divided as follows:
(a) A study of the origin of number and its use. The his-
tory of the development of the subject matter of arithmetic,
and past and present day methods of teaching the subject.
Assigned readings and class-room discussions form a prom-
inent part of this work.
32 WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL
(b) Review of some of the more difficult parts of arith-
metic. 12 weeks' credit.
102. College Algebra. Arithmetical and Geometrical pro-
gressions, binomial theorem, development of functions in series,
logarithms, theory of equations, convergency and divergency
of series, permutations and combinations. 12 weeks' credit.
103. Plane Trigonometry. This is equivalent to the work
done during the regular session. Solution of triangles by both
natural and logarithmic functions. 12 weeks' credit.
Note. — Either 102 or 103 will be given, according to the
number of students electing one course or the other.
101. Elements of Vocal Music. This is an academic course,
and should precede the Teachers' Course in Music. It pre-
supposes no previous knowledge, but deals with the very rudi-
ments of vocal music. It consists of the cultivation of the
ear, the voice, and the beginning of sight singing. The course
covered is that of Book One of any of the standard music
courses, and may be eliminated by examination. 12 weeks'
credit. MISS HOOTMAN.
103. Voice Culture I. This course includes both concert
and individual work. Correct breathing, proper placing of the
voice, clarity of tone, articulation and enunciation will be
treated specifically. Some songs will be taken up for interpre-
tation. This course is open to all students. Laboratory
credit, 3 or 6 weeks MRS. HOSTETTER.
106. Teachers' Course in Music. This must be preceded by
course 101 or its equivalent. Advanced sight reading and ear
training are taken up in this class, discussion of methods, and
practice teaching during the class period as a preparation for
teaching this subject in the first eight grades. Observation is
marie in the training school. 12 weeks' credit.
105. Primary Songs and Games. This course is a suggest-
ive ewe for teacheri in the primary grades as well as for spe-
cializing students. The following phases will be developed:
Rhythm — feeling for and interpretation of different rhythms
SUMMER BULLETIN 33
through games, balls, percussion instruments, folk dances and
rhythmic steps. Songs, — a sequence applicable to seasons and
school festivals and taken from the best composers of children's
songs will be learned. The care of the child voice and the
presentation of these two phases to the child will also be taken
up. Ability to play the rhythmic studies and accompaniments
is desirable and is required from specializing students in the
kindergarten and music courses. Observation may be made in
the training school. 6 weeks' credit.
HIGH SCHOOL MUSIC.
109. Harmony and Ear-Training. This course is offered to
meet the demand of the work in ear-training, melody writing
and elementary harmony in the Upper Grammar Grades and
High school. MRS. HOSTETTER.
119. Musical Appreciation and Biography. This course
will cover the lives and works of the great masters from Bach
and Handel down to the present time. Biographical note-book
and programs suitable for Grades and High School will be
worked out. The victrola will be used in this course.
122. Chorus. In view of the increasing demand for High
School Chorus concerts a cantata will be given suitable for
the average High School chorus. The chorus will meet for
two rehearsals each week. A credit of three weeks will be
given for the work. This course is open to all students.
Orchestra. All who have instruments and wish to join the
Normal School Orchestra will find it both pleasant and profit-
able. 3 weeks' credit. MR. MAYBEE.
Classes in penmanship will be organized at the beginning of
the term to suit the needs of students. There will be a num-
ber of sections, so that students will have an opportunity to
elect penmanship at different hours. MR. NORCROSS.
WESTERN STATE NORMAL SCHOOL 34
PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR WOMEN
A gymnasium suit is required for Courses 2 and 4 (bloomers,
middy blouse and shoes).
102. Physical Education. This course presupposes Physical
Training 101. It consists of Swedish and German gymnastics;
advanced light apparatus work and folk dancing; games for
outdoor and indoor use. 6 weeks' credit.
Combined with either tennis or swimming, 12 weeks' credit
and equivalent to 102 of the regular school year.
104. Physical Education. This course presupposes Physical
Education 101-2-3. It consists of more advanced work in all
lines. Students are given opportunity to arrange lessons and
conduct classes. 6 weeks' credit.
Combined with either tennis or swimming, 12 weeks' credit
and equivalent to 104 of the regular school year.
Instruction in tennis and volley ball will be given each
morning at 7:10.
Instruction in swimming will be given by appointment.
101. General Methods. (1) A study of the elementary
school curriculum with consideration of the subject-matter best
suited to the interests and needs of each period of childhood.
(2) The problem of motivation of school work. (3) A discus-
sion of types of lessons and the making of lesson plans. (4)
Systematic observation of different phases of grade work in the
training school with reports and class discussion. 12 weeks'
credit. MISS SPINDLER.
7. Rural School Methods. In the course special problems of
method aril inbject matter for rural schools will be consid-
orcrl. Special empbasii will be given to construction and seat
work possible in rural schools. At least one-half hour daily
of obterration in Training School is required. 6 weeks' credit.
SUMMER BULLETIN 35
The first, second, fourth, and sixth grades of the training
school will be in session from 9 to 11 a. m. each day for four
weeks of the summer term, to accommodate those who wish
to observe teaching in the grades. The regular critic teachers
will have charge of this work with the cooperation of the spe-
cial teachers in drawing, music, manual training, physical train-
ing, domestic art, and domestic science. The work will aim
to present proper material for use in the various subjects of
the curriculum such as nature study, geography, reading, and
language, and the special branches, including handwork, as
well as to show good methods of teaching.
It is hoped that large numbers of the students will avail
themselves of the help thus afforded them. No Normal School
credit is offered for this work. Commissioners may arrange
with the director, however, for reports of attendance of their
teachers. Observation will be required in connection with the
courses in General Methods and Eural School Methods. Each
critic will reserve a definite period for conference and general
discussion with the observers in the gamde and it is expected
that students observing for credit will attend at least one
conference each week.
Students taking observation in any course for credit should
fill out cards in the office of the Trailing School as soon as
their regular enrollment is completed.
MISS SPINDLER and CRITIC TEACHERS.